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The full book link


Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................... 8
FLUID FLOW AND PRESSURE DROP ...................................................................... 8
1. Introduction to facility piping and pipeline systems................................................................. 8
1.1.1 Flow line.......................................................................................................................................... 8
1.1.2 Trunk line ........................................................................................................................................ 8
1.1.3 Manifold .......................................................................................................................................... 8
1.1.4 Facility (on-plot) interconnecting piping...................................................................................... 8
1.1.5 Gathering line................................................................................................................................. 9
1.1.6 Transmission line........................................................................................................................... 9
1.2 Introduction to fluid flow design ................................................................................................ 9
1.2.1 Volume of fluid ............................................................................................................................... 9
1.2.2 Distance .......................................................................................................................................... 9
1.2.3 Pressure loss ............................................................................................................................... 10
1.2.4 Line size determination............................................................................................................... 10
1.2.4.1 Pressure drop considerations ............................................................................................ 10
1.2.4.2 Fluid velocity considerations .............................................................................................. 10
1.2.5 Wall thickness determination..................................................................................................... 10
1.2.5.1 Maximum internal/external pressure considerations ...................................................... 10
1.3 Fluid flow principles ................................................................................................................... 10
1.3.1 Pressure changes........................................................................................................................ 10
1.3.1.1 Acceleration effects ............................................................................................................. 10
1.3.1.2 Elevation effects................................................................................................................... 11
1.3.1.3 Frictional effects................................................................................................................... 11
1.3.2 Steady-state conditions .............................................................................................................. 11
1.4 Fluid types .................................................................................................................................... 11
1.4.1 Gases ............................................................................................................................................ 11
1.4.2 Crude oil........................................................................................................................................ 11
1.4.3 Water............................................................................................................................................. 11
1.4.4 Two-phase fluids.......................................................................................................................... 11
1.4.5 Combinations ............................................................................................................................... 12
1.5 Fluid characteristics ................................................................................................................... 12
1.5.1 Physical properties ...................................................................................................................... 12
1.5.1.1 Composition.......................................................................................................................... 12
1.5.1.2 Liquid Density....................................................................................................................... 12
1.5.2: Hydrocarbon gas physical properties ...................................................................................... 13
1.5.2.1: Molecular weight and apparent molecular weight.......................................................... 14
Example 1.1:.................................................................................................................................. 14
1.5.2.2: Apparent molecular weight of gas mixture...................................................................... 15
Example 1.2:.................................................................................................................................. 15
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1.5.2.3: Gas Specific Gravity and Density..................................................................................... 16
Example 1-3: ................................................................................................................................. 16
1.5.2.4: General Gas Law ..................................................................................................................... 16
1.5.2.5 Compressibility and compressibility factor (z) ................................................................. 17
Example 1-4: ................................................................................................................................. 17
Example 1-5: ................................................................................................................................. 18
Example 1-6: ................................................................................................................................. 19
1.5.2.6: Gas density at any condition of Pressure and temperature ......................................... 19
Example 1-7:.................................................................................................................................... 21
1.5.2.7: Gas volume at any condition of Pressure and temperature ......................................... 21
Example 1-8: ................................................................................................................................. 22
Example 1-9:.................................................................................................................................... 22
Example 1-10:................................................................................................................................. 22
Example 1-11:.................................................................................................................................. 22
Example 1-12:.................................................................................................................................. 23
1.5.3: Velocity of fluids (Liquid and gas), (ft/s)......................................................................................... 23
Example 1-13:.................................................................................................................................. 24
1.5.3.1 Maximum Recommended Velocity.......................................................................................... 25
1.5.4 Viscosity of Fluids............................................................................................................................ 25
1.5.2.1 Crude oil Viscosity.................................................................................................................... 26
1.5.2.2 Oil-Water Mixture Viscosity..................................................................................................... 28
1.5.2.3 Viscosity of gases..................................................................................................................... 28
1.5.5 Phase behavior............................................................................................................................ 29
1.5.6 Waxy crude................................................................................................................................... 30
1.5.6.1 Paraffin wax .......................................................................................................................... 30
1.5.6.2 Waxy crude behavior........................................................................................................... 30
1.5.6.3 Wax prediction...................................................................................................................... 32
1.5.6.4 Design and operational challenges ................................................................................... 32
1.5.6.5 Wax management................................................................................................................ 33
1.6 Flow conditions ........................................................................................................................... 33
1.6.1 Flow potential ............................................................................................................................... 33
1.6.2 Flow regimes................................................................................................................................ 33
1.6.3 Reynolds Number........................................................................................................................ 34
1.6.4 Pipe roughness............................................................................................................................ 35
1.6.5 Rate ............................................................................................................................................... 35
1.6.6 Velocity limitations....................................................................................................................... 35
1.6.7 Temperature................................................................................................................................. 35
1.6.7.1 Gas considerations.............................................................................................................. 35
1.6.7.2 Liquid considerations............................................................................................................... 35
1.7 Special considerations............................................................................................................... 36
1.7.1 Emulsions ..................................................................................................................................... 36
1.7.2 Pigging .......................................................................................................................................... 36
1.7.2.1 Liquid removal ...................................................................................................................... 36
1.7.2.2 Corrosion protection ............................................................................................................ 36
1.7.2.3 Cleaning ................................................................................................................................ 36
1.7.2.4 Monitoring ............................................................................................................................. 36
1.7.2.5 Auxiliary equipment ............................................................................................................. 36
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1.7.3 Water hammer ............................................................................................................................. 36
1.7.4 Line packing ................................................................................................................................. 37
1.7.5 Line drafting.................................................................................................................................. 37
1.7.6 Phase flow regimes..................................................................................................................... 37
1.7.6.1 Single-phase flow................................................................................................................. 37
1.7.6.2 Two-phase flow .................................................................................................................... 37
1.8 Volumetric and Mass Flow Rates ............................................................................................. 38
1.8.1 Volumetric Flow Rate.................................................................................................................. 38
Example 1-14:.................................................................................................................................. 38
1.8.2 Mass Flow Rate ........................................................................................................................... 38
Example 1-15: ............................................................................................................................... 38
1.9 Networks ....................................................................................................................................... 39
1.9.1 Pipes in series.............................................................................................................................. 39
1.9.2 Pipes in parallel ........................................................................................................................... 39
1.10 Continuity Equation .................................................................................................................. 40
Example 1-16: ............................................................................................................................... 40
Example 1-17: ............................................................................................................................... 40
Example 1-18: ............................................................................................................................... 41
1.11 Average pipeline pressure....................................................................................................... 42
1.12 Fluid head, friction losses, and Bernoulli’s equation......................................................... 42
1.12.1 Fluid head................................................................................................................................... 42
1.12.1.1 Pressure head....................................................................................................................... 42
1.12.1.2 Velocity head ......................................................................................................................... 42
1.12.1.3 Elevation head and Relationship between Depth and Pressure ................................ 42
Example 1-19:.................................................................................................................................. 43
Example 1-20: ............................................................................................................................... 44
CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................................................... 44
FRICTION LOSSES & PRESSURE DROP EQUATIONS ...................................... 45
2.1 Friction losses ............................................................................................................................. 45
2.2 Bernoulli’s equation.................................................................................................................... 45
2.3 Pressure drop equations ........................................................................................................... 46
2.3.1 Darcy-Weisbach equation .......................................................................................................... 47
2.3.2 Fanning equation......................................................................................................................... 47
2.3.3 Moody and fanning friction factor comparison ........................................................................ 48
2.3.4 Calculation procedure................................................................................................................. 49
2.3.5 Effects of elevation changes...................................................................................................... 51
2.3.6 Effects of viscosity........................................................................................................................... 51
2.3.7 Hazen-Williams equation ....................................................................................................... 52
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2.3.7.1 “C” factors ............................................................................................................................. 53
2.3.7.2 Applicability........................................................................................................................... 53
2.4 Gas flow ........................................................................................................................................... 54
2.4.1 Gas Flow Equations......................................................................................................................... 54
2.4.1.1 General Flow Equation............................................................................................................. 54
2.4.1.2 Friction Factor.......................................................................................................................... 56
2.4.1.3 Colebrook-White Equation ...................................................................................................... 58
Example 2.1 ..................................................................................................................................... 59
2.4.1.4 Transmission Factor................................................................................................................. 60
Example 2.2 ..................................................................................................................................... 61
2.4.1.5 Modified Colebrook-White Equation....................................................................................... 62
Example 2.3 ..................................................................................................................................... 62
2.4.1.6 American Gas Association (Aga) Equation............................................................................... 63
Example 2.4 ..................................................................................................................................... 63
2.4.2 Low Pressure Gas Flow.................................................................................................................... 64
2.4.2.1 Oliphant equation................................................................................................................. 64
2.4.2.2 Spitzglass Equation .................................................................................................................. 65
Example 2.5 ..................................................................................................................................... 65
2.4.3 Empirical gas flow equations........................................................................................................... 65
2.4.3.1 Weymouth equation............................................................................................................. 65
Where............................................................................................................................................. 66
Example 2.6 ..................................................................................................................................... 66
Example 2.7 ..................................................................................................................................... 66
2.4.5.2 Panhandle “A” equation ...................................................................................................... 67
2.4.5.3 Panhandle “B” equation .......................................................................................................... 68
Example 2.8 ..................................................................................................................................... 69
2.4.5.4 Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Equation .................................................................... 70
Example 2.9 ..................................................................................................................................... 70
2.4.6 Selection of gas flow equations ...................................................................................................... 71
2.4.6.1 General equation ..................................................................................................................... 71
2.4.6.2 Weymouth equation................................................................................................................ 71
2.4.6.3 Panhandle “B” equation .......................................................................................................... 71
2.4.6.4 Spitzglass equation .................................................................................................................. 71
2.4.6.5 Oliphant equation.................................................................................................................... 71
2.4.6.6 IGT equation ............................................................................................................................ 71
2.4.7 Steam equations - Babcock equation....................................................................................... 71
CHAPTER THREE ................................................................................................................. 72
TWO-PHASE FLOW ............................................................................................................. 72
3.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 72
3.2 Factors that affect two-phase flow................................................................................................... 72
3.2.1 Liquid volume fraction .................................................................................................................... 73
3.2.2 Pipeline profile ................................................................................................................................ 73
3.2.3 Liquid holdup................................................................................................................................... 73
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3.2.4 Two-phase flow regimes................................................................................................................. 73
3.2.4.1 Horizontal flow regimes........................................................................................................... 73
3.2.4.1.2 Elongated bubble (plug flow): .......................................................................................... 74
3.2.4.1.4 Slug flow; .......................................................................................................................... 74
3.2.4.2 Vertical flow regimes............................................................................................................... 75
3.2.4.2.1 Bubble flow....................................................................................................................... 75
3.2.4.2.3 Churn (transition) flow ..................................................................................................... 76
3.2.4.2.4 Annular-mist flow............................................................................................................. 76
3.3 Two-phase pressure loss.................................................................................................................. 77
3.4 Two-phase liquid holdup.................................................................................................................. 77
3.5 Two-phase flow correlations............................................................................................................ 77
3.5.1 Beggs and Brill equation.................................................................................................................. 78
3.5.2 API RP 14E equation........................................................................................................................ 78
3.5.3 AGA equations ................................................................................................................................ 79
3.5.4 Calculation procedure ..................................................................................................................... 79
Example 3.1 ..................................................................................................................................... 82
Example 3.2 ..................................................................................................................................... 86
3.6 Sizing Criteria for Gas/Liquid Two-Phase Lines................................................................................. 86
a. Erosional velocity. ................................................................................................................................ 86
b. Minimum Velocity................................................................................................................................ 87
.................................................................................................................... 88
Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing
Basics of Gas Field Processing
Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry
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