Water Formed Scale Deposits . Book

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Water Formed Scale Deposits . Book

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Free Book

Water Formed Scale Deposits

Scale Prediction and calculations

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... -Scale.pdf

Contents
Chapter 1......................................................................................................................................... 5
Fundamentals of Chemistry and water Analysis............................................................................. 5
1.1 Elements and Compounds..................................................................................................... 5
1.1.1 Pure Substances, Compounds, Elements....................................................................... 5
1.1.2 Atom:.............................................................................................................................. 5
1.1.3 Atomic Number.............................................................................................................. 6
1.1.4 Atomic Mass Number..................................................................................................... 6
1.1.5 Atomic Weight................................................................................................................ 7
1.1.6 Molecules and Molecular Weights................................................................................. 8
1.1.7 The mole....................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.8 Ions and Valence .......................................................................................................... 10
1.1.9 Radicals......................................................................................................................... 11
1.1.10 Equivalent Weights..................................................................................................... 11
1.1.11 Using Equivalent weights ........................................................................................... 12
Chapter 2....................................................................................................................................... 14
Water Formed Scale...................................................................................................................... 14
2.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 14
2.2 Scale Types .......................................................................................................................... 14
2.2.1 Calcium Carbonate ....................................................................................................... 15
2.2.2 Calcium Sulfate............................................................................................................. 18
2.2.3 Barium Sulfate .............................................................................................................. 20
2.2.4 Strontium Sulfate.......................................................................................................... 23
2.2.5 Iron Compounds........................................................................................................... 25
2.3 Predicting Scale Formation.................................................................................................. 27
2.3.1 The value of Solubility calculations.............................................................................. 27
2.3.2 The Basics for Solubility Calculations ........................................................................... 27
2.3.3 Solubility Product Principle .......................................................................................... 28
2.3.4 Saturation Ratio............................................................................................................ 29
2.3.5 Calcium Carbonate Scaling Calculations....................................................................... 29
2.3.6 Sulfate Scaling Calculations.......................................................................................... 34
2.3.7 Barium Sulfate Solubility Calculations.......................................................................... 35
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2.3.8 Strontium Sulfate Solubility Calculations..................................................................... 36
2.4 Example Scale Calculations.................................................................................................. 37
Chapter 3....................................................................................................................................... 45
Scale problems & Inhibition .......................................................................................................... 45
3.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 45
3.2 Scale mechanisms................................................................................................................ 45
3.3 Causes of Scales................................................................................................................... 45
3.3.1 Change in temperature ................................................................................................ 45
3.3.2 Mixing Incompatible water .......................................................................................... 52
3.3.3 Loss of carbon dioxide (increase in pH)........................................................................ 53
3.4 Field and Lab Examination of Scales.................................................................................... 54
3.5 Qualitative and Quantitative Tests...................................................................................... 55
Chapter 4....................................................................................................................................... 57
Scale Inhibition .............................................................................................................................. 57
4.1 Theory of Scale Inhibition.................................................................................................... 57
4.1.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................. 57
4.2 Complexation ...................................................................................................................... 57
4.3 Adsorption........................................................................................................................... 59
4.3.1 Threshold Inhibition ..................................................................................................... 64
4.4 Laboratory Evaluation of Inhibitors..................................................................................... 65
4.4.1 Precipitation Tests........................................................................................................ 66
Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing
Basics of Gas Field Processing
Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry
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