Produced water treatment . Book

Oilfield water treatment - Water injection - Oilfield water microbiology . Sulfae reducing bacteria SRB
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Produced water treatment . Book

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Produced water treatment . Book

Free Book
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Oilfield Water Treatment book

Produced water treatment and injection

The book also contains:
Oil field water Microbiology (Sulfate reducing Bacteria)
http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... nt-adv.pdf


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Yasser Kassem - http://oilprocessing.net/oil/
Produced Water Treatment & Injection .................................................................................................1
Chapter 1.............................................................................................................................................................6
Water Sampling and Analysis.................................................................................................................................6
1.1 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................6
1.2 Water Sampling ...................................................................................................................................................6
1.2.1 Sample Containers........................................................................................................................................6
1.2.2 Sample Volume.............................................................................................................................................7
1.2.3 Sampling Procedure......................................................................................................................................7
1.3 Quantitative Analysis of Oilfield Water ...............................................................................................................8
1.3.1 Primary Constituent and Properties.............................................................................................................8
1.3.2 Significance of Constituent and Properties ..................................................................................................8
Chapter Two ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
Produced Water Treating Systems............................................................................................................... 12
2.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................12
2.2 Disposal Standards ........................................................................................................................................13
2.2.1 Offshore Operations ...............................................................................................................................13
2.2.2 Onshore Operations ...............................................................................................................................13
2.3 Characteristics of Produced Water..............................................................................................................13
1.3.1 Dissolved Solids ......................................................................................................................................13
2.3.2 Precipitated Solids (Scales)...................................................................................................................14
2.3.2.1 Scale Removal......................................................................................................................................15
2.3.2.2 Controlling Scale Using Chemical Inhibitors ........................................................................................15
2.3.3 Sand and Other Suspended Solids..............................................................................................................15
2.3.4 Dissolved Gases ..........................................................................................................................................16
2.3.5 Oil in Water Emulsions................................................................................................................................16
2.3.6 Dissolved Oil Concentrations......................................................................................................................17
2.3.7 Dispersed Oil...............................................................................................................................................18
2.3.8 Toxicants.....................................................................................................................................................19
2.3.9 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials.................................................................................................20
2.3.10 Bacteria.....................................................................................................................................................21
2.4 System Description.............................................................................................................................................22
2.5 Theory ................................................................................................................................................................24
2.5.1 Gravity Separation ......................................................................................................................................24
2.5.2 Coalescence ................................................................................................................................................24
2.5.3 Dispersion ...................................................................................................................................................25
2.5.4 Flotation......................................................................................................................................................25
2.5.5 Filtration .....................................................................................................................................................27
2.6 Equipment Description and Sizing .....................................................................................................................27
2.6.1 Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels......................................................................................................................27
2.6.1.1 Configurations .....................................................................................................................................28
2.6.1.2 Pressure Versus Atmospheric Vessels .................................................................................................29
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2.6.1.3 Retention Time ....................................................................................................................................29
2.6.1.4 Performance Considerations...............................................................................................................30
1.6.1.5 Skimmer Sizing Equations....................................................................................................................31
2.6.2 Coalescers...................................................................................................................................................33
2.6.2.1 Plate Coalescers...................................................................................................................................33
2.6.2.2 Parallel Plate Interceptor (PPI) ............................................................................................................35
2.6.2.3 Corrugated Plate Interceptor (CPI) ......................................................................................................35
1.6.2.4 Cross-Flow Devices ..............................................................................................................................38
2.6.2.5 Performance Considerations...............................................................................................................39
2.6.2.6 Selection Criteria..................................................................................................................................41
2.6.2.7 Coalescer Sizing Equations...................................................................................................................42
2.6.2.8 Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators........................................................................................43
2.6.2.9 Skimmer/Coalescers ............................................................................................................................45
2.6.2.10 Matrix Type........................................................................................................................................45
2.6.2.11 Precipitators/Coalescing Filters.........................................................................................................47
2.6.2.12 Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers ........................................................................................................49
2.6.3 Flotation Units ............................................................................................................................................53
2.6.3.1 Dissolved Gas Units..............................................................................................................................54
2.6.3.2 Dispersed Gas Units.............................................................................................................................55
1.6.3.3 Hydraulic Induced Units.......................................................................................................................57
2.6.3.4 Mechanical Induced Units ...................................................................................................................59
2.6.3.5 Sizing Dispersed Gas Units...................................................................................................................60
2.6.3.6 Performance Considerations...............................................................................................................62
2.6.4 Hydrocyclones ............................................................................................................................................65
2.6.4.1 Operating Principles ............................................................................................................................65
2.6.4.2 Static Hydrocyclones............................................................................................................................66
2.6.4.3 Dynamic Hydrocyclones.......................................................................................................................68
2.6.4.4 Selection Criteria and Application Guidelines .....................................................................................69
2.6.4.5 Sizing and Design .................................................................................................................................70
2.6.5 Disposal Piles ..............................................................................................................................................71
2.6.5.1 Disposal Pile Sizing...............................................................................................................................71
2.6.6 Skim Piles....................................................................................................................................................73
2.6.6.1 Skim Pile Sizing.....................................................................................................................................74
2.7 Drain Systems ....................................................................................................................................................74
2.8 Information Required for Design .......................................................................................................................74
2.8.1 Effluent Quality...........................................................................................................................................74
2.8.2 Influent Water Quality ................................................................................................................................75
2.8.2.1 Produced Water...................................................................................................................................75
2.8.2.2 Equipment Selection Procedure ..........................................................................................................75
Chapter 3............................................................................................................................................................. 77
Water Injection Systems...................................................................................................................................... 77
3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................77
3.2 Solids Removal Theory .......................................................................................................................................78
3.2.1 Removal of Suspended Solids from Water .................................................................................................78
3.2.1.2 Flotation Units .....................................................................................................................................79
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3.2.1.3 Filtration ..............................................................................................................................................80
3.2.2 Solids Removal Equipment Description......................................................................................................89
3.2.2.1 Gravity Settling Tanks..........................................................................................................................91
3.2.2.2 Plate Coalescers...................................................................................................................................95
3.2.2.3 Hydrocyclones......................................................................................................................................95
3.2.2.4 Centrifuges...........................................................................................................................................97
3.2.2.5 Flotation Units .....................................................................................................................................97
3.2.2.6 Disposable Cartridge Filters.................................................................................................................98
3.2.2.7 Backwashable Cartridge Filters..........................................................................................................100
3.2.2.8 Granular Media Filters.......................................................................................................................100
2.2.2.9 Diatomaceous Earth Filters................................................................................................................104
3.3 Dissolved Gas Removal ....................................................................................................................................110
3.3.1 Mechanical Removal Theory ....................................................................................................................110
3.3.1.1 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures.......................................................................................................110
3.3.1.2 Henry’s Law........................................................................................................................................110
3.3.1.3 Temperature......................................................................................................................................110
3.3.2 Dissolved Oxygen Removal and Exclusion ................................................................................................111
3.3.2.1 Mechanical Removal..........................................................................................................................111
3.3.3 Chemical Removal of Dissolved Oxygen ...................................................................................................114
3.3.3.1 Sulfite Oxygen Scavengers.................................................................................................................114
3.3.3.2 Factors Affecting Sulfite Reaction Rates............................................................................................115
3.3.3.3 Other Oxygen Scavengers..................................................................................................................116
3.3.3.4 Gas Blankets and Oxygen Entrance ...................................................................................................117
3.3.3.5 Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen............................................................................................................118
3.3.4 Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Water...............................................................................................118
3.3.4.1 Mechanical Removal..........................................................................................................................118
3.3.4.2 Chemical Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Water.........................................................................119
3.3.5 Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Water...................................................................................................120
Chapter 4........................................................................................................................................................... 122
Water Treatment Microbiology ......................................................................................................................... 122
4.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................122
4.2 Microorganisms Found in Oilfield Water Systems...........................................................................................122
4.2.1 Characteristics of Bacteria ........................................................................................................................123
4.2.2 Bacteria Which Cause Problems...............................................................................................................124
4.2.2.1 Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB).........................................................................................................124
4.2.2.2 Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria.......................................................................................................................127
4.2.2.3 Slime-Forming Bacteria......................................................................................................................128
4.2.3 Culturing, Identifying, and Counting Bacteria...........................................................................................128
4.2.3.1 Extinction “serial” dilution technique................................................................................................128
4.2.3.2 Types of cultures................................................................................................................................129
4.2.3.3 Rapid Bacterial Detection and Counting Methods ............................................................................133
4.2.3.4 Water Sampling for Bacterial Analysis...............................................................................................135
4.2.4 Chemical Control of Microorganisms .......................................................................................................137
4.2.4.1 Types of Chemicals ............................................................................................................................137
4.2.4.2 Chemical Composition .......................................................................................................................137
4.2.4.3 Several items must be considered in selection: ................................................................................138
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4..2.4.4 Chemical Application ........................................................................................................................139
4.2.4.5 Evaluation of Chemical Treatment Programs....................................................................................140
4.2.4.6 Time-Kill Tests....................................................................................................................................142
Appendix A ........................................................................................................................................................ 146
Water Sampling Techniques .............................................................................................................................. 146
A.1 Sampling Considerations.................................................................................................................................146
A.1.1 Sample Gathering for Oil Concentration Measurement ..........................................................................146
A.1.2 Sample Storage for Oil Concentration Measurement ..............................................................................147
A.1.3 Sample Gathering for Particle Size Analysis .............................................................................................147
Appendix B ........................................................................................................................................................ 149
Oil Concentration Analysis Techniques.............................................................................................................. 149
B.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................149
B.1.1 Determination of Dissolved Oil and Grease .............................................................................................149
B.1.1.1 Gravimetric Method ..........................................................................................................................150
B.1.1.2 Infrared (IR) Absorbance Method......................................................................................................150
B.1.1.3 Analysis of Variance of Analytical Results .........................................................................................150
B 1.2 Particle Size Analysis.................................................................................................................................151
B.1.2.1 Droplet Size Measurement Equipment .............................................................................................151
Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing
Basics of Gas Field Processing
Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry
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