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Oil and Gas Books

1 - Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing Book

2- Basics of Gas Field Processing Book

3- Prediction and Inhibition of Gas Hydrates Book

4 - Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry Book



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Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing book contents


Contents

Chapter 1 10

Basics of Oil and Gas Treatment 10

1.1 Introduction 10

1.2 Hydrocarbon preparation 10

1.3: Physical properties of Hydrocarbon Gases 11

1.3.1: Hydrocarbon gases 11

1.3.2: Molecular weight and apparent molecular weight 11

1.3.3: Apparent molecular weight of gas mixture 12

1.3.4: Gas Specific Gravity and Density 13

1.3.6: Compressibility Factor (z) 14

1.3.7: Gas density at any condition of Pressure and temperature 18

1.3.8: Gas volume at any condition of Pressure and temperature 19

1.3.9: Velocity of gas, (ft/s) 20

1.3.10: Average pipeline pressure 21

1.3.11: Viscosity of gases 22

1.3.12: The heating value of gases 22

1.4: properties of Hydrocarbon Liquids (Crude Oil) 23

1.4.1: Introduction 23

1.4.2: Crude oil Density and gravity 24

1.4.3: Crude oil Viscosity. 25

1.4.4: Oil-Water Mixture Viscosity 25

1.5: Phase Behavior 27

1.5.1: Introduction 27

1.5.2 System Components 27

1.5.3: Single-Component Systems 28

1.5.4: Multicomponent Systems 31

1.5.5: Prediction of phase envelope 32

1.6: Types of Fluid Flow 42

1.6.1: Reynolds Number 42

Chapter 2 43

Two-phase Oil and Gas Separation 43

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Phase Equilibrium 43

2.3: Separation process: 43

2.4: Principles of Physical Separation: 44

2.5: Gravity Separation: 44

2.6: Factors Affecting Separation 46

2.7: Separator categories and nomenclature: 47

2.8: Functional Sections of a Gas-Liquid Separator 47

2.8.1: Inlet Diverter Section 48

2.8.2: Liquid Collection Section 48

2.8.3: Gravity Settling Section 48

2.8.4: Mist Extractor Section 49

2.9: Separator Configurations 49

2.10: Types of Separators 50

2.10.1: Vertical Separators 50

2.10.2: Horizontal Separators 52

2.10.3: Double-Barrel Horizontal Separators 53

2.10.4: Horizontal Separator with a “Boot” or “Water Pot” 54

2.10.5: Filter Separators 54

2.10.6: Scrubbers 56

2.10.7: Slug Catchers 56

2.11: Selection Considerations 57

2.12: Internal Vessel Components 59

2.12.1: Inlet Diverters 59

2.12.2: Wave Breakers 62

2.12.3: Defoaming Plates 62

2.12.4: Vortex Breaker 63

2.12.5: Stilling Well 64

2.12.6: Sand Jets and Drains 64

2.12.7: Mist Extractors 65

2.13: Control Components of Gas–Oil Separators 76

2.14.1: Foamy Crude 77

2.14.2: Paraffin 78

2.14.3: Sand 78

2.14.4: Gas Blowby 78

2.14.5: Liquid Carryover 79

2.14.6: Liquid Slugs 79

2.15: Stage Separation 80

2.15.1: Initial Separation Pressure 80

2.15.2: Stage Separation 81

2.15.3: Selection of Stages 83

2.15.4: Fields with Different Flowing Tubing Pressures 83

2.15.5: Determining Separator Operating Pressures 84

2.15.6: Two-Phase vs. Three-Phase Separators 85

2.16: Separator calculation basics. 85

2.16.1: Liquid Handling and Liquid Retention Time 85

2.16.2: Gas retention time 86

2.16.3: Gas velocity 86

2.16.4: Liquid Re-entrainment 87

2.16.5: Droplet Size (Liquid in gas phase) 88

2.17: Design Principles and sizing of Oil-gas Separator 88

2.17.1: First method Design Theory 89

2.17.1.12: Slenderness Ratio 95

2.17.2: Second method Design Theory 100

Chapter 3 107

Three-phase Oil and Gas Separation 107

3.1: Introduction 107

3.2: three phase separation equipment’s 108

3.2.1: Horizontal Separators 108

3.2.2: Free-Water Knockout 111

3.2.3: Horizontal Three-Phase Separator with a Liquid “Boot” 111

3.2.4: Vertical Separators 112

3.2.5: Selection Considerations 114

3.3: Internal Vessel components 115

3.3.1: Coalescing Plates 117

3.4: Operating Problems 118

3.4.1: Emulsions 118

3.5: Three-Phase Separator Design Theory 118

3.5.1: Gas Separation 118

3.5.2: Oil–Water Settling 118

3.5.3: Water Droplet Size in Oil 118

3.5.4: Oil Droplet Size in Water 119

3.5.5: Retention Time 119

3.6: Separator Design (first method) 121

3.6.1: Horizontal Three-phase Separator Sizing—Half-Full 121

3.6.1.2: Retention Time Constraint 121

3.6.1.3: Settling Water Droplets from Oil Phase 122

3.6.1.4: Separating Oil Droplets from Water Phase 123

3.6.2: Vertical Separators’ Sizing 124

3.6.2.1: Gas Capacity Constraint 125

3.6.2.3: Settling Oil from Water Phase Constraint 125

3.7: Separator Design (second method) 131

Chapter 4 134

Crude oil dehydration 134

4.1: Introduction 134

4.2: Emulsion 134

4.2.1 Energy of Agitation 135

4.2.2 Emulsifying Agents 136

4.2.3: Stability of oil water emulsion 137

4.2.4: Emulsion Treating Theory 139

4.2.5: Demulsifiers 140

4.3: Crude oil treating systems 143

4.3.1: Free-Water Knockouts 143

4.3.2: Gunbarrel tanks with internal and external gas boots 144

4.3.3: Heaters 146

4.4: Emulsion Treating Methods 164

4.4.1: General Considerations 164

4.4.2: Chemical Addition 165

4.5: Heat Required 174

4.5.1: Heat duty 174

4.5.2: Heat Loss 174

4.5.3: Fire Tube Heat Flux 175

4.5.4: Firetube Heat Density 175

4.6: Treater Equipment Sizing 175

4.6.2: Design Procedure 178

4.7: Practical Considerations 184

4.7.1: Gunbarrels with Internal/External Gas Boot 184

4.7.2: Heater-Treaters 184

4.7.3: Electrostatic Heater-Treaters 184

Chapter 5 185

Crude Oil Desalting 185

5.1: Introduction 185

5.1.1: Salt Content 185

5.1.2: Desalting Process 186

5.2: Equipment Description 186

5.2.1: Desalters 186

5.2.2: Mixing Equipment 186

5.3: Process Description 188

5.3.1: Single-Stage Desalting 189

5.3.2: Two-Stage Desalting 189

5.4: Electrostatic Desalting Voltage 189

5.5: Operating Parameters Effects 191

5.6: Design Consideration 191

5.7: Troubleshooting 192

Chapter 6 193

Crude Oil Stabilization and Sweetening 193

6.1: Introduction 193

6-1-1: Crude oil treatment steps 193

6.2: Process Schemes 194

6.2.1: Multi-Stage Separation 194

6.2.2: Oil Heater-Treaters 194

6.2.3: Liquid Hydrocarbon Stabilizer 195

6.2.4: Cold-Feed Stabilizer 197

6.2.5: Stabilizer with Reflux 197

6.3: Stabilization Equipment 199

6.3.1: Stabilizer Tower 199

6.4: Stabilizer Design 205

6.5: Crude Oil Sweetening 206

6.6.1: Stage vaporization with stripping gas. 206

6.6.2: Trayed stabilization with stripping gas. 207

6.6.3: Reboiled trayed stabilization. 208

Chapter 7 209

Fluid Measurements 209

7.1: Gas Measurement 209

7.1.1: Orifice-Meter Measurement 209

7.1.1.5: Meter Tubes 213

7.1.2: Ultrasonic Measurement 220

7.2: Liquid Measurements 221

7.2.1: Volumetric Measurement Meters (Orifice Meters) 221

7.2.2: Turbine Meters 223

7.2.3: Positive Displacement Meters 224

7.2.4: Turbine and Positive Displacement Meter Selection 224

7.2.5: Mass Measurement Meters 225

Chapter 8 228

Instrumentation and Control 228

8.1: Introduction 228

8.2: Type Selection and Identification 228

8.2.1: Pneumatic Power Supplies 228

8.2.2: Electronic Power Supplies 229

8.3: Sensing Devices 230

8.3.1: Pressure Sensors 230

8.3.1.3: Bellows (Fig. 8-3) 230

8.3.2: Level Sensors 232

8.3.3: Temperature Sensors 237

8.3.4: Flow Sensors 239

8.4: Signal Transmitters 241

8.4.1: Pneumatic Transmitters 241

8.4.2: Electronic Transmitters 241

8.5: Signal Converters 241

8.5.1: Pneumatic-to-electronic (P/I) 242

8.5.2: Electronic-to-pneumatic (I/P) 242

8.5.3: Isolators 242

8.5.4: Electric signal converters 242

8.5.5: Frequency converters 242

8.6: Recorders and Indicators 242

8.6.1: Recorders 242

8.6.2: Indicators 242

8.7: Control Concepts 243

8.7.1: Control Loops 243

8.8: Control Modes and Controllers 245

8.8.1: Two-Position (on-off) Controllers 245

8.8.2: Proportional Control Mode 245

8.9: Control Valves 246

8.9.1: Control-Valve Bodies 247

8.9.2: Control-Valve Actuators 248

8.9.3: Flow Characteristics and Valve Selection 249

8.9.4: Fundamentals of Control Valve Sizing 250

Chapter 9 256

Process Relief Systems 256

9.1: Introduction 256

9.2: Relief Device Design and Requirements: 256

9.2.1: Blocked Discharge 257

9.2.2: Fire Exposure 257

9.2.3: Tube Rupture 257

9.2.4: Control Valve Failure 257

9.2.5: Thermal Expansion 257

9.2.6: Utility Failure 257

9.3: General discussion 258

9.4: Special Relief System Considerations 260

9.4.1: Pumps and storage equipment 260

9.4.2: Low Temperature Flaring 260

9.5: Relieving Devices 260

9.5.1: Conventional Relief Valves 260

9.5.2: Balanced Relief Valves 262

9.5.3: Pilot Operated Relief Valves 262

9.5.4: Resilient Seat Relief Valves 264

9.5.5: Rupture Disk 265

References. 267





----------------------
Basics of Gas Field Processing book contents


Contents

Chapter 1 10

Basics of Oil and Gas Treatment 10

1.1 Introduction 10

1.2 Hydrocarbon preparation 10

1.3: Physical properties of Hydrocarbon Gases 11

1.3.1: Hydrocarbon gases 11

1.3.2: Molecular weight and apparent molecular weight 11

1.3.3: Apparent molecular weight of gas mixture 12

1.3.4: Gas Specific Gravity and Density 13

1.3.6: Compressibility Factor (z) 14

1.3.7: Gas density at any condition of Pressure and temperature 18

1.3.8: Gas volume at any condition of Pressure and temperature 19

1.3.9: Velocity of gas, (ft/s) 20

1.3.10: Average pipeline pressure 21

1.3.11: Viscosity of gases 22

1.3.12: The heating value of gases 22

1.4: properties of Hydrocarbon Liquids (Crude Oil) 23

1.4.1: Introduction 23

1.4.2: Crude oil Density and gravity 24

1.4.3: Crude oil Viscosity. 25

1.4.4: Oil-Water Mixture Viscosity 25

1.5: Phase Behavior 27

1.5.1: Introduction 27

1.5.2 System Components 27

1.5.3: Single-Component Systems 28

1.5.4: Multicomponent Systems 31

1.5.5: Prediction of phase envelope 32

1.6: Types of Fluid Flow 42

1.6.1: Reynolds Number 42

Chapter 2 43

Two-phase Oil and Gas Separation 43

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Phase Equilibrium 43

2.3: Separation process: 43

2.4: Principles of Physical Separation: 44

2.5: Gravity Separation: 44

2.6: Factors Affecting Separation 46

2.7: Separator categories and nomenclature: 47

2.8: Functional Sections of a Gas-Liquid Separator 47

2.8.1: Inlet Diverter Section 48

2.8.2: Liquid Collection Section 48

2.8.3: Gravity Settling Section 48

2.8.4: Mist Extractor Section 49

2.9: Separator Configurations 49

2.10: Types of Separators 50

2.10.1: Vertical Separators 50

2.10.2: Horizontal Separators 52

2.10.3: Double-Barrel Horizontal Separators 53

2.10.4: Horizontal Separator with a “Boot” or “Water Pot” 54

2.10.5: Filter Separators 54

2.10.6: Scrubbers 56

2.10.7: Slug Catchers 56

2.11: Selection Considerations 57

2.12: Internal Vessel Components 59

2.12.1: Inlet Diverters 59

2.12.2: Wave Breakers 62

2.12.3: Defoaming Plates 62

2.12.4: Vortex Breaker 63

2.12.5: Stilling Well 64

2.12.6: Sand Jets and Drains 64

2.12.7: Mist Extractors 65

2.13: Control Components of Gas–Oil Separators 76

2.14.1: Foamy Crude 77

2.14.2: Paraffin 78

2.14.3: Sand 78

2.14.4: Gas Blowby 78

2.14.5: Liquid Carryover 79

2.14.6: Liquid Slugs 79

2.15: Stage Separation 80

2.15.1: Initial Separation Pressure 80

2.15.2: Stage Separation 81

2.15.3: Selection of Stages 83

2.15.4: Fields with Different Flowing Tubing Pressures 83

2.15.5: Determining Separator Operating Pressures 84

2.15.6: Two-Phase vs. Three-Phase Separators 85

2.16: Separator calculation basics. 85

2.16.1: Liquid Handling and Liquid Retention Time 85

2.16.2: Gas retention time 86

2.16.3: Gas velocity 86

2.16.4: Liquid Re-entrainment 87

2.16.5: Droplet Size (Liquid in gas phase) 88

2.17: Design Principles and sizing of Oil-gas Separator 88

2.17.1: First method Design Theory 89

2.17.1.12: Slenderness Ratio 95

2.17.2: Second method Design Theory 100

Chapter 3 107

Three-phase Oil and Gas Separation 107

3.1: Introduction 107

3.2: three phase separation equipment’s 108

3.2.1: Horizontal Separators 108

3.2.2: Free-Water Knockout 111

3.2.3: Horizontal Three-Phase Separator with a Liquid “Boot” 111

3.2.4: Vertical Separators 112

3.2.5: Selection Considerations 114

3.3: Internal Vessel components 115

3.3.1: Coalescing Plates 117

3.4: Operating Problems 118

3.4.1: Emulsions 118

3.5: Three-Phase Separator Design Theory 118

3.5.1: Gas Separation 118

3.5.2: Oil–Water Settling 118

3.5.3: Water Droplet Size in Oil 118

3.5.4: Oil Droplet Size in Water 119

3.5.5: Retention Time 119

3.6: Separator Design (first method) 121

3.6.1: Horizontal Three-phase Separator Sizing—Half-Full 121

3.6.1.2: Retention Time Constraint 121

3.6.1.3: Settling Water Droplets from Oil Phase 122

3.6.1.4: Separating Oil Droplets from Water Phase 123

3.6.2: Vertical Separators’ Sizing 124

3.6.2.1: Gas Capacity Constraint 125

3.6.2.3: Settling Oil from Water Phase Constraint 125

3.7: Separator Design (second method) 131

Chapter 4 134

Crude oil dehydration 134

4.1: Introduction 134

4.2: Emulsion 134

4.2.1 Energy of Agitation 135

4.2.2 Emulsifying Agents 136

4.2.3: Stability of oil water emulsion 137

4.2.4: Emulsion Treating Theory 139

4.2.5: Demulsifiers 140

4.3: Crude oil treating systems 143

4.3.1: Free-Water Knockouts 143

4.3.2: Gunbarrel tanks with internal and external gas boots 144

4.3.3: Heaters 146

4.4: Emulsion Treating Methods 164

4.4.1: General Considerations 164

4.4.2: Chemical Addition 165

4.5: Heat Required 174

4.5.1: Heat duty 174

4.5.2: Heat Loss 174

4.5.3: Fire Tube Heat Flux 175

4.5.4: Firetube Heat Density 175

4.6: Treater Equipment Sizing 175

4.6.2: Design Procedure 178

4.7: Practical Considerations 184

4.7.1: Gunbarrels with Internal/External Gas Boot 184

4.7.2: Heater-Treaters 184

4.7.3: Electrostatic Heater-Treaters 184

Chapter 5 185

Crude Oil Desalting 185

5.1: Introduction 185

5.1.1: Salt Content 185

5.1.2: Desalting Process 186

5.2: Equipment Description 186

5.2.1: Desalters 186

5.2.2: Mixing Equipment 186

5.3: Process Description 188

5.3.1: Single-Stage Desalting 189

5.3.2: Two-Stage Desalting 189

5.4: Electrostatic Desalting Voltage 189

5.5: Operating Parameters Effects 191

5.6: Design Consideration 191

5.7: Troubleshooting 192

Chapter 6 193

Crude Oil Stabilization and Sweetening 193

6.1: Introduction 193

6-1-1: Crude oil treatment steps 193

6.2: Process Schemes 194

6.2.1: Multi-Stage Separation 194

6.2.2: Oil Heater-Treaters 194

6.2.3: Liquid Hydrocarbon Stabilizer 195

6.2.4: Cold-Feed Stabilizer 197

6.2.5: Stabilizer with Reflux 197

6.3: Stabilization Equipment 199

6.3.1: Stabilizer Tower 199

6.4: Stabilizer Design 205

6.5: Crude Oil Sweetening 206

6.6.1: Stage vaporization with stripping gas. 206

6.6.2: Trayed stabilization with stripping gas. 207

6.6.3: Reboiled trayed stabilization. 208

Chapter 7 209

Fluid Measurements 209

7.1: Gas Measurement 209

7.1.1: Orifice-Meter Measurement 209

7.1.1.5: Meter Tubes 213

7.1.2: Ultrasonic Measurement 220

7.2: Liquid Measurements 221

7.2.1: Volumetric Measurement Meters (Orifice Meters) 221

7.2.2: Turbine Meters 223

7.2.3: Positive Displacement Meters 224

7.2.4: Turbine and Positive Displacement Meter Selection 224

7.2.5: Mass Measurement Meters 225

Chapter 8 228

Instrumentation and Control 228

8.1: Introduction 228

8.2: Type Selection and Identification 228

8.2.1: Pneumatic Power Supplies 228

8.2.2: Electronic Power Supplies 229

8.3: Sensing Devices 230

8.3.1: Pressure Sensors 230

8.3.1.3: Bellows (Fig. 8-3) 230

8.3.2: Level Sensors 232

8.3.3: Temperature Sensors 237

8.3.4: Flow Sensors 239

8.4: Signal Transmitters 241

8.4.1: Pneumatic Transmitters 241

8.4.2: Electronic Transmitters 241

8.5: Signal Converters 241

8.5.1: Pneumatic-to-electronic (P/I) 242

8.5.2: Electronic-to-pneumatic (I/P) 242

8.5.3: Isolators 242

8.5.4: Electric signal converters 242

8.5.5: Frequency converters 242

8.6: Recorders and Indicators 242

8.6.1: Recorders 242

8.6.2: Indicators 242

8.7: Control Concepts 243

8.7.1: Control Loops 243

8.8: Control Modes and Controllers 245

8.8.1: Two-Position (on-off) Controllers 245

8.8.2: Proportional Control Mode 245

8.9: Control Valves 246

8.9.1: Control-Valve Bodies 247

8.9.2: Control-Valve Actuators 248

8.9.3: Flow Characteristics and Valve Selection 249

8.9.4: Fundamentals of Control Valve Sizing 250

Chapter 9 256

Process Relief Systems 256

9.1: Introduction 256

9.2: Relief Device Design and Requirements: 256

9.2.1: Blocked Discharge 257

9.2.2: Fire Exposure 257

9.2.3: Tube Rupture 257

9.2.4: Control Valve Failure 257

9.2.5: Thermal Expansion 257

9.2.6: Utility Failure 257

9.3: General discussion 258

9.4: Special Relief System Considerations 260

9.4.1: Pumps and storage equipment 260

9.4.2: Low Temperature Flaring 260

9.5: Relieving Devices 260

9.5.1: Conventional Relief Valves 260

9.5.2: Balanced Relief Valves 262

9.5.3: Pilot Operated Relief Valves 262

9.5.4: Resilient Seat Relief Valves 264

9.5.5: Rupture Disk 265

References. 267

-----------------

Corrosion in Oil and Gas industry book contents

Contents

Chapter 1 11

Corrosion Definition and cost 11

1.1 Definition of Corrosion 11

1.1.1 Corrosion Science and Corrosion Engineering 11

1.1.2 Corrosive Environment 12

1.2 Importance of Corrosion 12

Chapter 2 15

Fundamentals of Electricity and Electrochemistry 15

2.1 Atomic Structure 15

2.2 Chemical and Elecrochemical Chemical Reaction 18

2.3 Corrosion as an Electrochemical Process 19

2.4 Corrosion Cell (The Complete Corrosion Circuit) 19

2.5 Basics Electricity 22

2.5.1 Current 22

2.5.2 Electromotive Force (EMF) 22

2.5.3 Resistance 22

2.5.4 Units of Electric Current - Ampere 22

2.5.5 Unit of Electromotive Force - Volt 22

2.5.6 Unit of Resistance - Ohm 23

2.5.7 Ohms Law 23

2.5.8 The Two General Types of Electricity 24

2.5.8.1 What is Alternating Current? 24

2.5.8.2 What is Direct Current? 25

2.5.9 Unit of Resistivity 25

2.6 Thermodynamics 26

2.7 Potential 27

2.8 Reference Electrodes 27

2.8.1 Calomel Reference Electrode 27

2.8.2 Silver-silver chloridereference electrode 28

2.8.3 Copper-copper sulfate reference electrode 29

2.8.4 Comparison of Potential Measured Using different Reference Electrodes. 30

2.9 The Galvanic Series 31

2.10 Nernst Equation 31

2.10.1 EMF Series 33

2.12 Pourbaix diagrams 33

2.13 Kinetics 33

2.13.1 Faraday’s Law 34

2.13.2 E Log I Curves (Evans Diagrams) 35

2.13.3 Area Effects 36

2.14 Electrochemical Cells 37

2.14.1 Galvanic Corrosion 38

2.14.2 Concentration Cell Corrosion 38

2.14.3 Active/Passive Cells 38

2.14.4 Thermogalvanic Corrosion 38

2.15 Passivity 39

Chapter 3 41

Environments 41

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Atmospheric 41

3.3 Types of atmosphere 42

3.3.1 Industrial Atmospheres 42

3.3.2 Marine Atmospheres 42

3.3.3 Rural Atmospheres 43

3.3.4 Tropical Atmospheres 43

3.3.5 Indoor Atmospheres 43

3.4 Underground 43

3.4.1 Physical Soil Characteristics 44

3.4.2 Chemical Soil Characteristics 44

3.4.3 Moisture Content 44

3.4.4 Electrical Resistivity 44

3.4.5 Aeration 45

3.4.6 Bacteria 45

3-5 Liquids 45

3.5.1 pH 46

3.5.2 Physical Configuration of The System 47

3.5.3 Chemical Makeup of The Liquid 47

3.5.4 Flow Rate 47

3.5.5 Temperature 47

3.5.6 Pressure 48

3.6 High Temperature 48

3.6.1 High-Temperature Oxidation 48

3.6.2 High-Temperature Reduction 49

Chapter 4 50

Engineering Materials 50

4.1 Introduction 50

4.2 Metals 50

4.3 Metallurgy Concepts 50

4.3.1 Crystal Structure of Metals 50

4.3.2 Alloying 52

4.3.3 Welding 53

4.3.4 Carbon and Low-alloy Steels 53

4.3.5 Cast Iron 54

4.3.6 Copper Alloy 56

4.3.6.1 Characteristics of Copper Alloys 56

4.3.7 Stainless Steel 56

4.3.7.1 Martensitic Stainless steels 57

4.3.7.2 Ferritic Stainless Steel 57

4.3.7.3 Austenitic Stainless steels 57

4.3.7.4 Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels 57

4.3.7.6 Super-Austenitic Stainless Steels 58

4.3.8 Nickel Based Alloys 58

4.3.9 Aluminum and Aluminum Based Alloys 59

4.3.10 Titanium 59

4.4 Nonmetals 59

4.4.1 Concrete 60

4.4.1.1 Components of Concrete 60

4.4.1.2 Effects of Environment on Concrete 61

Chapter 5 64

Forms of Corrosion 64

5.1 Introduction 64

5.2 Forms of Corrosion 64

5.2.1 General (uniform) attack corrosion 64

5.2.1.2 Recognition 65

5.2.1.3 Mechanism 65

5.2.1.4 Corrosion rate 65

5.2.1.5 Predictability and Measurement 65

5.2.1.6 General attack corrosion- Performance of Metals and Alloys 66

5.2.1.7 Control of General Attack Corrosion 66

5.2.2 Localized Corrosion 68

5.2.2.2 Types 68

5.2.2.3 Pitting Corrosion 68

5.2.2.4 Crevice Corrosion 74

5.2.2.5 Filiform Corrosion 79

5.2.2.6 Pack Rust Corrosion 81

5.2.3 Galvanic Corrosion (Bi-metallic corrosion) 81

5.2.3.1 Introduction 81

5.2.3.3 Mechanism 83

5.2.3.4 Galvanic Series 83

5.2.3.5 Galvanic Corrosion Rates 85

5.2.3.6 Predicting Galvanic Attack 88

5.2.3.7 Galvanic Attack – Performance of Metals and Alloys 89

5.2.3.8 Control of Galvanic Attack 90

5.2.4 Environmental Cracking 92

5.2.4.1 Introduction 92

5.2.4.2 Recognition of Environmental Cracking 92

5.2.4.3 Controlling Cracking Factors 92

5.2.4.4 Types of Environmental Cracking 92

1- Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) 93

2. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) and Sulfide Stress Cracking 99

3. Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) 104

4. Corrosion Fatigue 107

5.2.5 Flow Assisted Corrosion 114

1- Erosion-Corrosion 114

2- Impingement 116

3- Cavitation 119

5.2.6 Intergranular Corrosion 122

1- General Sensitization 123

2- Weld Decay 124

3- Knife Line Attack 124

5.2.7 Dealloying 126

5.2.8 Fretting Corrosion 129

5.2.9 High – Temperature Corrosion 131

Chapter 6 138

6 Methods of Corrosion Control 138

6.1 Design 138

6.1.1 Material selection 138

6.1.2 Process Parameters 138

A - Temperature: 138

B- Velocity 139

C- Pressure 140

D- Chemistry 140

6.1.3 Construction Parameters 140

6.1.4 Geometry of Drainage 141

6.1.5 Dissimilar Metals 142

6.1.6 Crevices 143

6.1.7 Corrosion Allowance/ Operation Lifetime 144

6.1.8 Maintenance and Inspection 144

6.1.9 (1) Material selection 144

6.1.9.1 Factors That Influence Materials Selection 144

1. Corrosion Resistance in the Environment 145

2. Availability of Design and Test Data 145

3. Mechanical Properties 145

4. Cost 146

5. Availability and Maintainability 146

6. Compatibility with Other System Components 146

7. Life Expectancy of Equipment 146

8. Reliability 146

9. Appearance 146

6.1.9.2 Comparison with Other Corrosion Control Methods 147

6.1.9.2.1 Candidate Materials 147

6.1.9.2.2 Modification of the Environment (Corrosion Inhibitor) 147

6.1.9.2.3 Water Treatment 154

6.1.9.2.4 Cathodic and Anodic Protection 155

Chapter 7 174

Corrosion and Failure Inspection 174

7.1 Introduction 174

7.1.1 Visual 175

7.1.2 Radiographic 175

7.1.3 Ultrasonic 177

7.1.4 Electromagnetic - Eddy Current Inspection Method 179

7.1.5 Liquid Penetrant 180

7.1.6 Magnetic Particle Inspection 181

Chapter 8 183

Corrosion Monitoring 183

8.1 Introduction 183

8.1.1 Specimen Exposure 183

Corrosion Coupons 183

8.1.2 Electrical Resistance (ER) 187

8.1.3 Inductive Resistance Probes 190

8.1.4 Electrochemical Methods 191

Linear Polarization Resistance 191

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 193

Electrochemical noise 193

8.1.5 Water Chemistry 193

8.1.6 Deposits 193

8.1.7 Suspended Solids 194

8.1.8 Scale 194

8.1.9 Microbiological Fouling 194

8.1.10 Cathodic Protection Monitoring 194

Measurements Methods 194

Annex A 197

Material Properties and Material Testing 197

Structural Forms of Steel 197

Ferrite 197

Cementite 197

Pearlite 197

Austenite 198

Types of steel 199

Carbon Steel: (plain carbon steel) 199

Low Carbon Steel: 199

Medium Carbon Steel: 199

High Carbon Steel: 199

Alloy Steel: 200

Stainless Steels and Nonferrous Materials 200

Steel Alloying Elements 200

Steel Numbering 200

Metal Grain Size. 201

Heat Treating Steels 201

Cooling Rates: Annealing, Normalizing, and Quenching. 202

Quenching 202

Annealing and Normalizing 202

Tempering 203

Material properties 203

Hardness 204

Ductility and Brittleness. 206

Tensile strength 206

Tensile Strength Testing 206

Glossary of Commonly Used Metallurgical Terms 209

Annex B 210

Microbiologically induced corrosion 210

Introduction 210

Microbiological activity and redox potential 210

---------
Oil and Gas Books

1 - Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing Book

2- Basics of Gas Field Processing Book

3- Prediction and Inhibition of Gas Hydrates Book

4 - Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry Book



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Oil and Gas Books

1 - Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing Book

2- Basics of Gas Field Processing Book

3- Prediction and Inhibition of Gas Hydrates Book

4 - Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry Book



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And Book texts.

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Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing book contents


Contents

Chapter 1 10

Basics of Oil and Gas Treatment 10

1.1 Introduction 10

1.2 Hydrocarbon preparation 10

1.3: Physical properties of Hydrocarbon Gases 11

1.3.1: Hydrocarbon gases 11

1.3.2: Molecular weight and apparent molecular weight 11

1.3.3: Apparent molecular weight of gas mixture 12

1.3.4: Gas Specific Gravity and Density 13

1.3.6: Compressibility Factor (z) 14

1.3.7: Gas density at any condition of Pressure and temperature 18

1.3.8: Gas volume at any condition of Pressure and temperature 19

1.3.9: Velocity of gas, (ft/s) 20

1.3.10: Average pipeline pressure 21

1.3.11: Viscosity of gases 22

1.3.12: The heating value of gases 22

1.4: properties of Hydrocarbon Liquids (Crude Oil) 23

1.4.1: Introduction 23

1.4.2: Crude oil Density and gravity 24

1.4.3: Crude oil Viscosity. 25

1.4.4: Oil-Water Mixture Viscosity 25

1.5: Phase Behavior 27

1.5.1: Introduction 27

1.5.2 System Components 27

1.5.3: Single-Component Systems 28

1.5.4: Multicomponent Systems 31

1.5.5: Prediction of phase envelope 32

1.6: Types of Fluid Flow 42

1.6.1: Reynolds Number 42

Chapter 2 43

Two-phase Oil and Gas Separation 43

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Phase Equilibrium 43

2.3: Separation process: 43

2.4: Principles of Physical Separation: 44

2.5: Gravity Separation: 44

2.6: Factors Affecting Separation 46

2.7: Separator categories and nomenclature: 47

2.8: Functional Sections of a Gas-Liquid Separator 47

2.8.1: Inlet Diverter Section 48

2.8.2: Liquid Collection Section 48

2.8.3: Gravity Settling Section 48

2.8.4: Mist Extractor Section 49

2.9: Separator Configurations 49

2.10: Types of Separators 50

2.10.1: Vertical Separators 50

2.10.2: Horizontal Separators 52

2.10.3: Double-Barrel Horizontal Separators 53

2.10.4: Horizontal Separator with a “Boot” or “Water Pot” 54

2.10.5: Filter Separators 54

2.10.6: Scrubbers 56

2.10.7: Slug Catchers 56

2.11: Selection Considerations 57

2.12: Internal Vessel Components 59

2.12.1: Inlet Diverters 59

2.12.2: Wave Breakers 62

2.12.3: Defoaming Plates 62

2.12.4: Vortex Breaker 63

2.12.5: Stilling Well 64

2.12.6: Sand Jets and Drains 64

2.12.7: Mist Extractors 65

2.13: Control Components of Gas–Oil Separators 76

2.14.1: Foamy Crude 77

2.14.2: Paraffin 78

2.14.3: Sand 78

2.14.4: Gas Blowby 78

2.14.5: Liquid Carryover 79

2.14.6: Liquid Slugs 79

2.15: Stage Separation 80

2.15.1: Initial Separation Pressure 80

2.15.2: Stage Separation 81

2.15.3: Selection of Stages 83

2.15.4: Fields with Different Flowing Tubing Pressures 83

2.15.5: Determining Separator Operating Pressures 84

2.15.6: Two-Phase vs. Three-Phase Separators 85

2.16: Separator calculation basics. 85

2.16.1: Liquid Handling and Liquid Retention Time 85

2.16.2: Gas retention time 86

2.16.3: Gas velocity 86

2.16.4: Liquid Re-entrainment 87

2.16.5: Droplet Size (Liquid in gas phase) 88

2.17: Design Principles and sizing of Oil-gas Separator 88

2.17.1: First method Design Theory 89

2.17.1.12: Slenderness Ratio 95

2.17.2: Second method Design Theory 100

Chapter 3 107

Three-phase Oil and Gas Separation 107

3.1: Introduction 107

3.2: three phase separation equipment’s 108

3.2.1: Horizontal Separators 108

3.2.2: Free-Water Knockout 111

3.2.3: Horizontal Three-Phase Separator with a Liquid “Boot” 111

3.2.4: Vertical Separators 112

3.2.5: Selection Considerations 114

3.3: Internal Vessel components 115

3.3.1: Coalescing Plates 117

3.4: Operating Problems 118

3.4.1: Emulsions 118

3.5: Three-Phase Separator Design Theory 118

3.5.1: Gas Separation 118

3.5.2: Oil–Water Settling 118

3.5.3: Water Droplet Size in Oil 118

3.5.4: Oil Droplet Size in Water 119

3.5.5: Retention Time 119

3.6: Separator Design (first method) 121

3.6.1: Horizontal Three-phase Separator Sizing—Half-Full 121

3.6.1.2: Retention Time Constraint 121

3.6.1.3: Settling Water Droplets from Oil Phase 122

3.6.1.4: Separating Oil Droplets from Water Phase 123

3.6.2: Vertical Separators’ Sizing 124

3.6.2.1: Gas Capacity Constraint 125

3.6.2.3: Settling Oil from Water Phase Constraint 125

3.7: Separator Design (second method) 131

Chapter 4 134

Crude oil dehydration 134

4.1: Introduction 134

4.2: Emulsion 134

4.2.1 Energy of Agitation 135

4.2.2 Emulsifying Agents 136

4.2.3: Stability of oil water emulsion 137

4.2.4: Emulsion Treating Theory 139

4.2.5: Demulsifiers 140

4.3: Crude oil treating systems 143

4.3.1: Free-Water Knockouts 143

4.3.2: Gunbarrel tanks with internal and external gas boots 144

4.3.3: Heaters 146

4.4: Emulsion Treating Methods 164

4.4.1: General Considerations 164

4.4.2: Chemical Addition 165

4.5: Heat Required 174

4.5.1: Heat duty 174

4.5.2: Heat Loss 174

4.5.3: Fire Tube Heat Flux 175

4.5.4: Firetube Heat Density 175

4.6: Treater Equipment Sizing 175

4.6.2: Design Procedure 178

4.7: Practical Considerations 184

4.7.1: Gunbarrels with Internal/External Gas Boot 184

4.7.2: Heater-Treaters 184

4.7.3: Electrostatic Heater-Treaters 184

Chapter 5 185

Crude Oil Desalting 185

5.1: Introduction 185

5.1.1: Salt Content 185

5.1.2: Desalting Process 186

5.2: Equipment Description 186

5.2.1: Desalters 186

5.2.2: Mixing Equipment 186

5.3: Process Description 188

5.3.1: Single-Stage Desalting 189

5.3.2: Two-Stage Desalting 189

5.4: Electrostatic Desalting Voltage 189

5.5: Operating Parameters Effects 191

5.6: Design Consideration 191

5.7: Troubleshooting 192

Chapter 6 193

Crude Oil Stabilization and Sweetening 193

6.1: Introduction 193

6-1-1: Crude oil treatment steps 193

6.2: Process Schemes 194

6.2.1: Multi-Stage Separation 194

6.2.2: Oil Heater-Treaters 194

6.2.3: Liquid Hydrocarbon Stabilizer 195

6.2.4: Cold-Feed Stabilizer 197

6.2.5: Stabilizer with Reflux 197

6.3: Stabilization Equipment 199

6.3.1: Stabilizer Tower 199

6.4: Stabilizer Design 205

6.5: Crude Oil Sweetening 206

6.6.1: Stage vaporization with stripping gas. 206

6.6.2: Trayed stabilization with stripping gas. 207

6.6.3: Reboiled trayed stabilization. 208

Chapter 7 209

Fluid Measurements 209

7.1: Gas Measurement 209

7.1.1: Orifice-Meter Measurement 209

7.1.1.5: Meter Tubes 213

7.1.2: Ultrasonic Measurement 220

7.2: Liquid Measurements 221

7.2.1: Volumetric Measurement Meters (Orifice Meters) 221

7.2.2: Turbine Meters 223

7.2.3: Positive Displacement Meters 224

7.2.4: Turbine and Positive Displacement Meter Selection 224

7.2.5: Mass Measurement Meters 225

Chapter 8 228

Instrumentation and Control 228

8.1: Introduction 228

8.2: Type Selection and Identification 228

8.2.1: Pneumatic Power Supplies 228

8.2.2: Electronic Power Supplies 229

8.3: Sensing Devices 230

8.3.1: Pressure Sensors 230

8.3.1.3: Bellows (Fig. 8-3) 230

8.3.2: Level Sensors 232

8.3.3: Temperature Sensors 237

8.3.4: Flow Sensors 239

8.4: Signal Transmitters 241

8.4.1: Pneumatic Transmitters 241

8.4.2: Electronic Transmitters 241

8.5: Signal Converters 241

8.5.1: Pneumatic-to-electronic (P/I) 242

8.5.2: Electronic-to-pneumatic (I/P) 242

8.5.3: Isolators 242

8.5.4: Electric signal converters 242

8.5.5: Frequency converters 242

8.6: Recorders and Indicators 242

8.6.1: Recorders 242

8.6.2: Indicators 242

8.7: Control Concepts 243

8.7.1: Control Loops 243

8.8: Control Modes and Controllers 245

8.8.1: Two-Position (on-off) Controllers 245

8.8.2: Proportional Control Mode 245

8.9: Control Valves 246

8.9.1: Control-Valve Bodies 247

8.9.2: Control-Valve Actuators 248

8.9.3: Flow Characteristics and Valve Selection 249

8.9.4: Fundamentals of Control Valve Sizing 250

Chapter 9 256

Process Relief Systems 256

9.1: Introduction 256

9.2: Relief Device Design and Requirements: 256

9.2.1: Blocked Discharge 257

9.2.2: Fire Exposure 257

9.2.3: Tube Rupture 257

9.2.4: Control Valve Failure 257

9.2.5: Thermal Expansion 257

9.2.6: Utility Failure 257

9.3: General discussion 258

9.4: Special Relief System Considerations 260

9.4.1: Pumps and storage equipment 260

9.4.2: Low Temperature Flaring 260

9.5: Relieving Devices 260

9.5.1: Conventional Relief Valves 260

9.5.2: Balanced Relief Valves 262

9.5.3: Pilot Operated Relief Valves 262

9.5.4: Resilient Seat Relief Valves 264

9.5.5: Rupture Disk 265

References. 267





----------------------
Basics of Gas Field Processing book contents


Contents

Chapter 1 10

Basics of Oil and Gas Treatment 10

1.1 Introduction 10

1.2 Hydrocarbon preparation 10

1.3: Physical properties of Hydrocarbon Gases 11

1.3.1: Hydrocarbon gases 11

1.3.2: Molecular weight and apparent molecular weight 11

1.3.3: Apparent molecular weight of gas mixture 12

1.3.4: Gas Specific Gravity and Density 13

1.3.6: Compressibility Factor (z) 14

1.3.7: Gas density at any condition of Pressure and temperature 18

1.3.8: Gas volume at any condition of Pressure and temperature 19

1.3.9: Velocity of gas, (ft/s) 20

1.3.10: Average pipeline pressure 21

1.3.11: Viscosity of gases 22

1.3.12: The heating value of gases 22

1.4: properties of Hydrocarbon Liquids (Crude Oil) 23

1.4.1: Introduction 23

1.4.2: Crude oil Density and gravity 24

1.4.3: Crude oil Viscosity. 25

1.4.4: Oil-Water Mixture Viscosity 25

1.5: Phase Behavior 27

1.5.1: Introduction 27

1.5.2 System Components 27

1.5.3: Single-Component Systems 28

1.5.4: Multicomponent Systems 31

1.5.5: Prediction of phase envelope 32

1.6: Types of Fluid Flow 42

1.6.1: Reynolds Number 42

Chapter 2 43

Two-phase Oil and Gas Separation 43

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Phase Equilibrium 43

2.3: Separation process: 43

2.4: Principles of Physical Separation: 44

2.5: Gravity Separation: 44

2.6: Factors Affecting Separation 46

2.7: Separator categories and nomenclature: 47

2.8: Functional Sections of a Gas-Liquid Separator 47

2.8.1: Inlet Diverter Section 48

2.8.2: Liquid Collection Section 48

2.8.3: Gravity Settling Section 48

2.8.4: Mist Extractor Section 49

2.9: Separator Configurations 49

2.10: Types of Separators 50

2.10.1: Vertical Separators 50

2.10.2: Horizontal Separators 52

2.10.3: Double-Barrel Horizontal Separators 53

2.10.4: Horizontal Separator with a “Boot” or “Water Pot” 54

2.10.5: Filter Separators 54

2.10.6: Scrubbers 56

2.10.7: Slug Catchers 56

2.11: Selection Considerations 57

2.12: Internal Vessel Components 59

2.12.1: Inlet Diverters 59

2.12.2: Wave Breakers 62

2.12.3: Defoaming Plates 62

2.12.4: Vortex Breaker 63

2.12.5: Stilling Well 64

2.12.6: Sand Jets and Drains 64

2.12.7: Mist Extractors 65

2.13: Control Components of Gas–Oil Separators 76

2.14.1: Foamy Crude 77

2.14.2: Paraffin 78

2.14.3: Sand 78

2.14.4: Gas Blowby 78

2.14.5: Liquid Carryover 79

2.14.6: Liquid Slugs 79

2.15: Stage Separation 80

2.15.1: Initial Separation Pressure 80

2.15.2: Stage Separation 81

2.15.3: Selection of Stages 83

2.15.4: Fields with Different Flowing Tubing Pressures 83

2.15.5: Determining Separator Operating Pressures 84

2.15.6: Two-Phase vs. Three-Phase Separators 85

2.16: Separator calculation basics. 85

2.16.1: Liquid Handling and Liquid Retention Time 85

2.16.2: Gas retention time 86

2.16.3: Gas velocity 86

2.16.4: Liquid Re-entrainment 87

2.16.5: Droplet Size (Liquid in gas phase) 88

2.17: Design Principles and sizing of Oil-gas Separator 88

2.17.1: First method Design Theory 89

2.17.1.12: Slenderness Ratio 95

2.17.2: Second method Design Theory 100

Chapter 3 107

Three-phase Oil and Gas Separation 107

3.1: Introduction 107

3.2: three phase separation equipment’s 108

3.2.1: Horizontal Separators 108

3.2.2: Free-Water Knockout 111

3.2.3: Horizontal Three-Phase Separator with a Liquid “Boot” 111

3.2.4: Vertical Separators 112

3.2.5: Selection Considerations 114

3.3: Internal Vessel components 115

3.3.1: Coalescing Plates 117

3.4: Operating Problems 118

3.4.1: Emulsions 118

3.5: Three-Phase Separator Design Theory 118

3.5.1: Gas Separation 118

3.5.2: Oil–Water Settling 118

3.5.3: Water Droplet Size in Oil 118

3.5.4: Oil Droplet Size in Water 119

3.5.5: Retention Time 119

3.6: Separator Design (first method) 121

3.6.1: Horizontal Three-phase Separator Sizing—Half-Full 121

3.6.1.2: Retention Time Constraint 121

3.6.1.3: Settling Water Droplets from Oil Phase 122

3.6.1.4: Separating Oil Droplets from Water Phase 123

3.6.2: Vertical Separators’ Sizing 124

3.6.2.1: Gas Capacity Constraint 125

3.6.2.3: Settling Oil from Water Phase Constraint 125

3.7: Separator Design (second method) 131

Chapter 4 134

Crude oil dehydration 134

4.1: Introduction 134

4.2: Emulsion 134

4.2.1 Energy of Agitation 135

4.2.2 Emulsifying Agents 136

4.2.3: Stability of oil water emulsion 137

4.2.4: Emulsion Treating Theory 139

4.2.5: Demulsifiers 140

4.3: Crude oil treating systems 143

4.3.1: Free-Water Knockouts 143

4.3.2: Gunbarrel tanks with internal and external gas boots 144

4.3.3: Heaters 146

4.4: Emulsion Treating Methods 164

4.4.1: General Considerations 164

4.4.2: Chemical Addition 165

4.5: Heat Required 174

4.5.1: Heat duty 174

4.5.2: Heat Loss 174

4.5.3: Fire Tube Heat Flux 175

4.5.4: Firetube Heat Density 175

4.6: Treater Equipment Sizing 175

4.6.2: Design Procedure 178

4.7: Practical Considerations 184

4.7.1: Gunbarrels with Internal/External Gas Boot 184

4.7.2: Heater-Treaters 184

4.7.3: Electrostatic Heater-Treaters 184

Chapter 5 185

Crude Oil Desalting 185

5.1: Introduction 185

5.1.1: Salt Content 185

5.1.2: Desalting Process 186

5.2: Equipment Description 186

5.2.1: Desalters 186

5.2.2: Mixing Equipment 186

5.3: Process Description 188

5.3.1: Single-Stage Desalting 189

5.3.2: Two-Stage Desalting 189

5.4: Electrostatic Desalting Voltage 189

5.5: Operating Parameters Effects 191

5.6: Design Consideration 191

5.7: Troubleshooting 192

Chapter 6 193

Crude Oil Stabilization and Sweetening 193

6.1: Introduction 193

6-1-1: Crude oil treatment steps 193

6.2: Process Schemes 194

6.2.1: Multi-Stage Separation 194

6.2.2: Oil Heater-Treaters 194

6.2.3: Liquid Hydrocarbon Stabilizer 195

6.2.4: Cold-Feed Stabilizer 197

6.2.5: Stabilizer with Reflux 197

6.3: Stabilization Equipment 199

6.3.1: Stabilizer Tower 199

6.4: Stabilizer Design 205

6.5: Crude Oil Sweetening 206

6.6.1: Stage vaporization with stripping gas. 206

6.6.2: Trayed stabilization with stripping gas. 207

6.6.3: Reboiled trayed stabilization. 208

Chapter 7 209

Fluid Measurements 209

7.1: Gas Measurement 209

7.1.1: Orifice-Meter Measurement 209

7.1.1.5: Meter Tubes 213

7.1.2: Ultrasonic Measurement 220

7.2: Liquid Measurements 221

7.2.1: Volumetric Measurement Meters (Orifice Meters) 221

7.2.2: Turbine Meters 223

7.2.3: Positive Displacement Meters 224

7.2.4: Turbine and Positive Displacement Meter Selection 224

7.2.5: Mass Measurement Meters 225

Chapter 8 228

Instrumentation and Control 228

8.1: Introduction 228

8.2: Type Selection and Identification 228

8.2.1: Pneumatic Power Supplies 228

8.2.2: Electronic Power Supplies 229

8.3: Sensing Devices 230

8.3.1: Pressure Sensors 230

8.3.1.3: Bellows (Fig. 8-3) 230

8.3.2: Level Sensors 232

8.3.3: Temperature Sensors 237

8.3.4: Flow Sensors 239

8.4: Signal Transmitters 241

8.4.1: Pneumatic Transmitters 241

8.4.2: Electronic Transmitters 241

8.5: Signal Converters 241

8.5.1: Pneumatic-to-electronic (P/I) 242

8.5.2: Electronic-to-pneumatic (I/P) 242

8.5.3: Isolators 242

8.5.4: Electric signal converters 242

8.5.5: Frequency converters 242

8.6: Recorders and Indicators 242

8.6.1: Recorders 242

8.6.2: Indicators 242

8.7: Control Concepts 243

8.7.1: Control Loops 243

8.8: Control Modes and Controllers 245

8.8.1: Two-Position (on-off) Controllers 245

8.8.2: Proportional Control Mode 245

8.9: Control Valves 246

8.9.1: Control-Valve Bodies 247

8.9.2: Control-Valve Actuators 248

8.9.3: Flow Characteristics and Valve Selection 249

8.9.4: Fundamentals of Control Valve Sizing 250

Chapter 9 256

Process Relief Systems 256

9.1: Introduction 256

9.2: Relief Device Design and Requirements: 256

9.2.1: Blocked Discharge 257

9.2.2: Fire Exposure 257

9.2.3: Tube Rupture 257

9.2.4: Control Valve Failure 257

9.2.5: Thermal Expansion 257

9.2.6: Utility Failure 257

9.3: General discussion 258

9.4: Special Relief System Considerations 260

9.4.1: Pumps and storage equipment 260

9.4.2: Low Temperature Flaring 260

9.5: Relieving Devices 260

9.5.1: Conventional Relief Valves 260

9.5.2: Balanced Relief Valves 262

9.5.3: Pilot Operated Relief Valves 262

9.5.4: Resilient Seat Relief Valves 264

9.5.5: Rupture Disk 265

References. 267

-----------------

Corrosion in Oil and Gas industry book contents

Contents

Chapter 1 11

Corrosion Definition and cost 11

1.1 Definition of Corrosion 11

1.1.1 Corrosion Science and Corrosion Engineering 11

1.1.2 Corrosive Environment 12

1.2 Importance of Corrosion 12

Chapter 2 15

Fundamentals of Electricity and Electrochemistry 15

2.1 Atomic Structure 15

2.2 Chemical and Elecrochemical Chemical Reaction 18

2.3 Corrosion as an Electrochemical Process 19

2.4 Corrosion Cell (The Complete Corrosion Circuit) 19

2.5 Basics Electricity 22

2.5.1 Current 22

2.5.2 Electromotive Force (EMF) 22

2.5.3 Resistance 22

2.5.4 Units of Electric Current - Ampere 22

2.5.5 Unit of Electromotive Force - Volt 22

2.5.6 Unit of Resistance - Ohm 23

2.5.7 Ohms Law 23

2.5.8 The Two General Types of Electricity 24

2.5.8.1 What is Alternating Current? 24

2.5.8.2 What is Direct Current? 25

2.5.9 Unit of Resistivity 25

2.6 Thermodynamics 26

2.7 Potential 27

2.8 Reference Electrodes 27

2.8.1 Calomel Reference Electrode 27

2.8.2 Silver-silver chloridereference electrode 28

2.8.3 Copper-copper sulfate reference electrode 29

2.8.4 Comparison of Potential Measured Using different Reference Electrodes. 30

2.9 The Galvanic Series 31

2.10 Nernst Equation 31

2.10.1 EMF Series 33

2.12 Pourbaix diagrams 33

2.13 Kinetics 33

2.13.1 Faraday’s Law 34

2.13.2 E Log I Curves (Evans Diagrams) 35

2.13.3 Area Effects 36

2.14 Electrochemical Cells 37

2.14.1 Galvanic Corrosion 38

2.14.2 Concentration Cell Corrosion 38

2.14.3 Active/Passive Cells 38

2.14.4 Thermogalvanic Corrosion 38

2.15 Passivity 39

Chapter 3 41

Environments 41

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Atmospheric 41

3.3 Types of atmosphere 42

3.3.1 Industrial Atmospheres 42

3.3.2 Marine Atmospheres 42

3.3.3 Rural Atmospheres 43

3.3.4 Tropical Atmospheres 43

3.3.5 Indoor Atmospheres 43

3.4 Underground 43

3.4.1 Physical Soil Characteristics 44

3.4.2 Chemical Soil Characteristics 44

3.4.3 Moisture Content 44

3.4.4 Electrical Resistivity 44

3.4.5 Aeration 45

3.4.6 Bacteria 45

3-5 Liquids 45

3.5.1 pH 46

3.5.2 Physical Configuration of The System 47

3.5.3 Chemical Makeup of The Liquid 47

3.5.4 Flow Rate 47

3.5.5 Temperature 47

3.5.6 Pressure 48

3.6 High Temperature 48

3.6.1 High-Temperature Oxidation 48

3.6.2 High-Temperature Reduction 49

Chapter 4 50

Engineering Materials 50

4.1 Introduction 50

4.2 Metals 50

4.3 Metallurgy Concepts 50

4.3.1 Crystal Structure of Metals 50

4.3.2 Alloying 52

4.3.3 Welding 53

4.3.4 Carbon and Low-alloy Steels 53

4.3.5 Cast Iron 54

4.3.6 Copper Alloy 56

4.3.6.1 Characteristics of Copper Alloys 56

4.3.7 Stainless Steel 56

4.3.7.1 Martensitic Stainless steels 57

4.3.7.2 Ferritic Stainless Steel 57

4.3.7.3 Austenitic Stainless steels 57

4.3.7.4 Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels 57

4.3.7.6 Super-Austenitic Stainless Steels 58

4.3.8 Nickel Based Alloys 58

4.3.9 Aluminum and Aluminum Based Alloys 59

4.3.10 Titanium 59

4.4 Nonmetals 59

4.4.1 Concrete 60

4.4.1.1 Components of Concrete 60

4.4.1.2 Effects of Environment on Concrete 61

Chapter 5 64

Forms of Corrosion 64

5.1 Introduction 64

5.2 Forms of Corrosion 64

5.2.1 General (uniform) attack corrosion 64

5.2.1.2 Recognition 65

5.2.1.3 Mechanism 65

5.2.1.4 Corrosion rate 65

5.2.1.5 Predictability and Measurement 65

5.2.1.6 General attack corrosion- Performance of Metals and Alloys 66

5.2.1.7 Control of General Attack Corrosion 66

5.2.2 Localized Corrosion 68

5.2.2.2 Types 68

5.2.2.3 Pitting Corrosion 68

5.2.2.4 Crevice Corrosion 74

5.2.2.5 Filiform Corrosion 79

5.2.2.6 Pack Rust Corrosion 81

5.2.3 Galvanic Corrosion (Bi-metallic corrosion) 81

5.2.3.1 Introduction 81

5.2.3.3 Mechanism 83

5.2.3.4 Galvanic Series 83

5.2.3.5 Galvanic Corrosion Rates 85

5.2.3.6 Predicting Galvanic Attack 88

5.2.3.7 Galvanic Attack – Performance of Metals and Alloys 89

5.2.3.8 Control of Galvanic Attack 90

5.2.4 Environmental Cracking 92

5.2.4.1 Introduction 92

5.2.4.2 Recognition of Environmental Cracking 92

5.2.4.3 Controlling Cracking Factors 92

5.2.4.4 Types of Environmental Cracking 92

1- Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) 93

2. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) and Sulfide Stress Cracking 99

3. Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) 104

4. Corrosion Fatigue 107

5.2.5 Flow Assisted Corrosion 114

1- Erosion-Corrosion 114

2- Impingement 116

3- Cavitation 119

5.2.6 Intergranular Corrosion 122

1- General Sensitization 123

2- Weld Decay 124

3- Knife Line Attack 124

5.2.7 Dealloying 126

5.2.8 Fretting Corrosion 129

5.2.9 High – Temperature Corrosion 131

Chapter 6 138

6 Methods of Corrosion Control 138

6.1 Design 138

6.1.1 Material selection 138

6.1.2 Process Parameters 138

A - Temperature: 138

B- Velocity 139

C- Pressure 140

D- Chemistry 140

6.1.3 Construction Parameters 140

6.1.4 Geometry of Drainage 141

6.1.5 Dissimilar Metals 142

6.1.6 Crevices 143

6.1.7 Corrosion Allowance/ Operation Lifetime 144

6.1.8 Maintenance and Inspection 144

6.1.9 (1) Material selection 144

6.1.9.1 Factors That Influence Materials Selection 144

1. Corrosion Resistance in the Environment 145

2. Availability of Design and Test Data 145

3. Mechanical Properties 145

4. Cost 146

5. Availability and Maintainability 146

6. Compatibility with Other System Components 146

7. Life Expectancy of Equipment 146

8. Reliability 146

9. Appearance 146

6.1.9.2 Comparison with Other Corrosion Control Methods 147

6.1.9.2.1 Candidate Materials 147

6.1.9.2.2 Modification of the Environment (Corrosion Inhibitor) 147

6.1.9.2.3 Water Treatment 154

6.1.9.2.4 Cathodic and Anodic Protection 155

Chapter 7 174

Corrosion and Failure Inspection 174

7.1 Introduction 174

7.1.1 Visual 175

7.1.2 Radiographic 175

7.1.3 Ultrasonic 177

7.1.4 Electromagnetic - Eddy Current Inspection Method 179

7.1.5 Liquid Penetrant 180

7.1.6 Magnetic Particle Inspection 181

Chapter 8 183

Corrosion Monitoring 183

8.1 Introduction 183

8.1.1 Specimen Exposure 183

Corrosion Coupons 183

8.1.2 Electrical Resistance (ER) 187

8.1.3 Inductive Resistance Probes 190

8.1.4 Electrochemical Methods 191

Linear Polarization Resistance 191

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 193

Electrochemical noise 193

8.1.5 Water Chemistry 193

8.1.6 Deposits 193

8.1.7 Suspended Solids 194

8.1.8 Scale 194

8.1.9 Microbiological Fouling 194

8.1.10 Cathodic Protection Monitoring 194

Measurements Methods 194

Annex A 197

Material Properties and Material Testing 197

Structural Forms of Steel 197

Ferrite 197

Cementite 197

Pearlite 197

Austenite 198

Types of steel 199

Carbon Steel: (plain carbon steel) 199

Low Carbon Steel: 199

Medium Carbon Steel: 199

High Carbon Steel: 199

Alloy Steel: 200

Stainless Steels and Nonferrous Materials 200

Steel Alloying Elements 200

Steel Numbering 200

Metal Grain Size. 201

Heat Treating Steels 201

Cooling Rates: Annealing, Normalizing, and Quenching. 202

Quenching 202

Annealing and Normalizing 202

Tempering 203

Material properties 203

Hardness 204

Ductility and Brittleness. 206

Tensile strength 206

Tensile Strength Testing 206

Glossary of Commonly Used Metallurgical Terms 209

Annex B 210

Microbiologically induced corrosion 210

Introduction 210

Microbiological activity and redox potential 210

---------
Oil and Gas Books

1 - Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing Book Design and operation

2- Basics of Gas Field Processing Book

3- Prediction and Inhibition of Gas Hydrates Book

4 - Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry Book



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Discussion board
And Book texts.

http://www.oilprocessing.net/oil/

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http://www.oilprocessing.net/data/documents/2.htm

http://www.oilprocessing.net/data/documents/3.htm

http://www.oilprocessing.net/data/documents/4.htm
Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing
Basics of Gas Field Processing
Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry
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Re: Book Contents

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Without any Copyrights, I would like to share my books in oil and gas industry for free download and use.

Yasser Kassem



Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... e-copy.pdf



Basics of Oil and Gas Processing Book

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... e-copy.pdf



Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry Book

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... e-copy.pdf



Basics of Fluid Flow and Pressure Drop Calculation

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... e-copy.pdf



Produced Water Treatment Book

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... e-copy.pdf



Water Formed Scale deposits Book

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... e-copy.pdf



Paper Books available here

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Excel Calculation Spread sheets

Water and steam pressure drop calculation

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... -drop.xlsx



Two phase flow pressure drop and calculations

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... -drop.xlsx



Pressure drop in gas pipelines
Calculation of pressure drop for gas pipelines

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... tions.xlsx



oil pressure drop calculation
Liquid pressure drop
Darcy equation

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... -drop.xlsx



Two phase flow - AGA equation
pressure drop

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... A-eqn.xlsx



Mass flow to volumetic flow and vice versa

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... versa.xlsx



Pipe capacity - pipe weight - pipe contradiction

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... ction.xlsx



Flare Heat radiation
http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... -gpsa.xlsx



Gas to equivalent bbls of oil

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... ation.xlsx



Control Valve Sizing and calculations
Liquid and gas - simple - rule of thumps

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... d-gas.xlsx

Gas



http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... g_Gas.xlsx

Liquid

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... imple.xlsx



Different methods for hydrate prediction

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... _yass.xlsx



Horizontal tank volume calculation

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... uging.xlsx



Gas Molecular weight
Gas properties at different temperature and pressure
Gas volume
Gas heating value
Compressibility factor



http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... nd-MW.xlsx



Time required to drain a tank

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... ation.xlsx



Two phase separator sizing
Two phase separator calculation
Two phase separator design
--------------------
GPSA -Gas Processing Suppliers Association
API - American Petroleum Institute
Surface production facilities

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... thods.xlsx



Calculation of salt content in crude oil

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... ntBtb.xlsx



Liquid hydrostatic head calculation
Tank hydrostatic head calculations

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... -calc.xlsx



Flow calculations using orifice
Orifice calculations
Orifice sizing
Gas metering
Liquid metering

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... -yass.xlsx



Heat required for heating crude oil and emulsion



http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... uired.xlsx



Calculation of Viscosity of crude oil and emulsion and different temperature

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... e-oil.xlsx



Three phase separator calculation (sizing) -Different method

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... rator.xlsx



Three phase separator calculation (sizing)
Engineering data book method (GPSA)

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... -GPSA.xlsx



Scale Prediction -, water formed scale
Calcium carbonate scale
Calcium sulfate scale
Barium sulfate scale
Strontium sulfate scale
different methods
pH calculation at different temperature and pressure

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... n-2019.xls

Production network
retention time
Effect of pressure and temperature change in network and pipes
liquid/gas ration in pipes
Capacity of network

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... calc..xlsx

Methanol and glycol injection - hydrate inhibition
Hydrate prediction and inhibition

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... _yass.xlsx



Liquid and-gas velocity in pipes
Gas compressibility factor
Reynolds number

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... mber..xlsx



Liquid and gas retention time in separators
Liquid retention time
Gas retention time

http://oilprocessing.net/data/documents ... ocity.xlsx






Oil and Gas treatment

• Separator operation and design
• Heater treaters and Desalters
• Crude oil stabilization and sweetening.

• Gas Dehydration and conditioning.

• Gas sweetening.

• Condensate stabilization.

•Oil and Gas process calculations.

• Fluid Flow calculations .

• Crude oil and gas chemical treatment.

• Cathodic protection for oil field facilities.



Water Treatment

• Produced water treatment.
• Chemical selection and application for water treatment.
• Scale tendency calculations.

• Corrosion in oil and gas fields.



معالجة النفط والغاز
- طريقة عمل الفواصل وتصميمها

- السخانات التي تستخدم لمعالجة البترول ونوازع الأملاح

- تثبيت الخام و تحليته

- نزع المياه من الغازات الطبيعية وإعدادها للاستخدامات المتعددة.

- تحلية الغاز

- تثبيت المتكثفات البترولية

- حسابات الغاز والخام

- حسابات تدفق الموائع

- المعالجة الكيميائية للخام والغاز

- التآكل والحماية الكاثودية للمنشئات النفطية



معالجة المياه

- معالجة المياه المصاحبة للغاز والنفط

- اختيار الكيماويات لمعالجة المياه

- قابلية المياه للترسيب و حساباتها

- التآكل في حقول البترول والغاز.
Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Processing
Basics of Gas Field Processing
Basics of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry
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